As a parent, you absolutely dread that call from your child indicating he or she has a problem—maybe a huge problem.  On April 25th of this year we received a call from our oldest son.  He was taking a late lunch at a local restaurant in downtown Chattanooga when he suddenly collapsed, fell backwards and hit his head on the sidewalk.  An onlooker rushed over to help him and quickly decided he needed a visit to Memorial Hospital emergency room.  Something just did not feel right.  He called us on the way to the ER. Once in the ER and after approximately five (5) hours and one CAT Scan later, the attending physician informed us that our son had a great deal of fluid collecting at the top of his brain and there was a great deal of swelling.  The decision was made by them to move him to Erlanger Hospital.  Erlanger has better facilities for neurological surgery if that became necessary.  At 1:32 A.M. Wednesday morning we received word that our son had a tumor at the base of his brain stem.  It was somewhat smaller than a tennis ball and in all probability, had been growing for the last ten years.  Surgery was necessary and quickly to avoid a stroke or a heart attack.  The tumor was pressing on the spinal cannel and nerve bundles.  Much delay at this point would be catastrophic.  It is amazing to me that there were no signs of difficulty prior to his fall.  Nothing to tell us a problem existed at all.

Erlanger referred us to the Semmes-Murphy Clinic in Memphis where all documentation from Memorial and Erlanger had been sent.  Founded one hundred (100) years ago by Eustace Semmes, MD, and Francis Murphey, MD, Semmes-Murphey Neurologic & Spine Institute has been a leader in the development of technology and procedures that improve the quality of care for patients with neurological and spine disorders. This continuing leadership has made the Semmes-Murphey name instantly recognizable to physicians across the country and the world, many of whom refer their patients here for treatment.  Dr. Madison Michael performed the eight (8) hour surgery nine (9) days ago to remove the tumor.  He is a miracle worker.  The surgery was successful but with lingering issues needing to be addressed as time allows and physical therapy dictates. Our son has lost hearing in his left ear, double vision, some atrophy in his extremities, and loss of stability.  There was also great difficulty in swallowing for three days after surgery and at one time we felt there might be the need for a feeding tube insertion.  That proved not to be the case since he eventually passed the swallow test.  That test is as follows:

  • Water
  • Applesauce
  • Jell-O-like substance
  • Oatmeal
  • Solid food

He did eventually pass.

We have a long road of recovery ahead of us but there is optimism he can regain most, if not all of his cognitive and physical abilities.  We do suspect the hearing is gone and will never return, but he is alive.

CRANIAL NERVES:

Our brain is a remarkably delicate and wonderful piece of equipment.  The ultimate computer with absolutely no equal.  Let’s take a look.

The cranial nerves exist as a set of twelve (12) paired nerves arising directly from the brain. The first two nerves (olfactory and optic) arise from the cerebrum, whereas the remaining ten emerge from the brain stem. This is where our son’s tumor was located so the surgery would have to be performed by one of the very best neurosurgeons in the United States.  That’s Dr. Michael.

The names of the cranial nerves relate to their function and they are also numerically identified in roman numerals (I-XII). The images below will indicate the specific location of the cranial nerves and the functions they perform.

You see from above the complexity of the brain and what each area contributes to cognitive, mobility and sensory abilities.  Remarkably impressive central computer.

The image below shows the approximate location relative to positioning of the nerve bundles and the functions those nerves provide.

 

 

Doctor Michael indicated the nerves are like spider webs and to be successful those nerves would have to be pushed away to allow access to the tumor.   The digital below will indicate the twelve (12) nerve bundles as follows:

Olfactory–This is a type of sensory nerve that contributes in the sense of smell in human beings. These basically provide the specific cells that are termed as olfactory epithelium. It carries the information from the nasal epithelium to the olfactory center in brain.

Optic–This is a type of sensory nerve that transforms information about vision to the brain. To be specific this supplies information to the retina in the form of ganglion cells.

Oculomoter–This is a form of motor nerve that supplies to different centers along the midbrain. Its functions include superiorly uplifting the eyelid, superiorly rotating the eyeball, construction of the pupil on the exposure to light and operating several eye muscles.

Trochlear–This motor nerve also supplies to the midbrain and performs the function of handling the eye muscles and turning the eye.

Trigeminal–This is a type of the largest cranial nerve in all and performs many sensory functions related to the nose, eyes, tongue and teeth. It basically is further divided in three branches that are ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular nerve. This is a type of mixed nerve that performs sensory and motor functions in the brain.

Abducent–This is a type of motor nerve that supplies to the pons and performs the function of turning the eye laterally.

Facial–This motor nerve is responsible for different types of facial expressions. This also performs some functions of sensory nerve by supplying information about touch on the face and senses of tongue in mouth. It is basically present over the brain stem.

Vestibulocochlear–This motor nerve is basically functional in providing information related to balance of head and sense of sound or hearing. It carries vestibular as well as cochlear information to the brain and is placed near the inner ear.

Glossopharyngeal–This is a sensory nerve which carries sensory information from the pharynx (initial portion of throat) and some portion of tongue and palate. The information sent is about temperature, pressure and other related facts. It also covers some portion of taste buds and salivary glands. The nerve also carries some motor functions such as helping in swallowing food.

Vagus–This is also a type of mixed nerve that carries both motor and sensory functions. This basically deals with the area of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, trachea, bronchi, some portion of heart and palate. It works by constricting muscles of the above areas. In sensory part, it contributes in the tasting ability of the human being.

Spinal accessory–As the name intimates this motor nerve supplies information about the spinal cord, trapeziusand other surrounding muscles. It also provides muscle movement of the shoulders and surrounding neck.

Hypoglossal–This is a typical motor nerve that deals with the muscles of tongue.

CONCLUSION: I do not wish anyone gain this information as a result of having gone through this exercise.  It’s fascinating but I could have gone a lifetime not needing to know.  Just my thoughts.


I know I’m spoiled.  I like to know that when I get behind the wheel, put the key in the ignition, start my vehicle, pull out of the driveway, etc. I can get to my destination without mechanical issues.  I think we all are basically there.  Now, to do that, you have to maintain your “ride”.  I have a 1999 Toyota Pre-runner with 308,000 plus miles. Every three thousand miles I have it serviced.  Too much you say?  Well, I do have 308K and it’s still humming like a Singer Sewing Machine.

Mr. Charles Murry has been following the automotive industry for over thirty years.  Mr. Murry is also a senior editor for Design News Daily Magazine.  Much of the information below results from his recent post on the TEN MOST UNRELIABLE VEHICLES.  Each year Consumer Reports receives over one-half million consumer surveys on reliability information relative to the vehicles they drive.  The story is not always not a good one.  Let’s take a look at what CU readers consider the must unreliable vehicles and why.

Please keep in mind this is a CU report based upon feedback from vehicle owners.  Please do not shoot the messenger.  As always, I welcome your comments and hope this help your buying research.


At one time in the world there were only two distinctive branches of engineering, civil and military.

The word engineer was initially used in the context of warfare, dating back to 1325 when engine’er (literally, one who operates an engine) referred to “a constructor of military engines”.  In this context, “engine” referred to a military machine, i. e., a mechanical contraption used in war (for example, a catapult).

As the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings developed as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the older discipline. As the prevalence of civil engineering outstripped engineering in a military context and the number of disciplines expanded, the original military meaning of the word “engineering” is now largely obsolete. In its place, the term “military engineering” has come to be used.

OK, so that’s how we got here.  If you follow my posts you know I primarily concentrate on STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) professions.  Engineering is somewhat uppermost since I am a mechanical engineer.

There are many branches of the engineering profession.  Distinct areas of endeavor that attract individuals and capture their professional lives.  Several of these are as follows:

  • Electrical Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Civil Engineering
  • Chemical Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Engineering Physics
  • Nuclear Engineering
  • Petroleum Engineering
  • Materials Engineering

Of course, there are others but the one I wish to concentrate on with this post is the growing branch of engineering—Biomedical Engineering. Biomedical engineering, or bioengineering, is the application of engineering principles to the fields of biology and health care. Bioengineers work with doctors, therapists and researchers to develop systems, equipment and devices in order to solve clinical problems.  As such, the possibilities of a bioengineer’s charge are as follows:

Biomedical engineering has evolved over the years in response to advancements in science and technology.  This is NOT a new classification for engineering involvement.  Engineers have been at this for a while.  Throughout history, humans have made increasingly more effective devices to diagnose and treat diseases and to alleviate, rehabilitate or compensate for disabilities or injuries. One example is the evolution of hearing aids to mitigate hearing loss through sound amplification. The ear trumpet, a large horn-shaped device that was held up to the ear, was the only “viable form” of hearing assistance until the mid-20th century, according to the Hearing Aid Museum. Electrical devices had been developed before then, but were slow to catch on, the museum said on its website.

The works of Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison on sound transmission and amplification in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were applied to make the first tabletop hearing aids. These were followed by the first portable (or “luggable”) devices using vacuum-tube amplifiers powered by large batteries. However, the first wearable hearing aids had to await the development of the transistor by William Shockley and his team at Bell Laboratories. Subsequent development of micro-integrated circuits and advance battery technology has led to miniature hearing aids that fit entirely within the ear canal.

Let’s take a very quick look at several devices designed by biomedical engineering personnel.

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING:

POSITION EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY OR (PET) SCAN:

NOTE: PET scans represent a different technology relative to MRIs. The scan uses a special dye that has radioactive tracers. These tracers are injected into a vein in your arm. Your organs and tissues then absorb the tracer.

BLOOD CHEMISTRY MONOTORING EQUIPMENT:

ELECTROCARDIOGRAM MONITORING DEVICE (EKG):

INSULIN PUMP:

COLONOSCOPY:

THE PROFESSION:

Biomedical engineers design and develop medical systems, equipment and devices. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), this requires in-depth knowledge of the operational principles of the equipment (electronic, mechanical, biological, etc.) as well as knowledge about the application for which it is to be used. For instance, in order to design an artificial heart, an engineer must have extensive knowledge of electrical engineeringmechanical engineering and fluid dynamics as well as an in-depth understanding of cardiology and physiology. Designing a lab-on-a-chip requires knowledge of electronics, nanotechnology, materials science and biochemistry. In order to design prosthetic replacement limbs, expertise in mechanical engineering and material properties as well as biomechanics and physiology is essential.

The critical skills needed by a biomedical engineer include a well-rounded understanding of several areas of engineering as well as the specific area of application. This could include studying physiology, organic chemistry, biomechanics or computer science. Continuing education and training are also necessary to keep up with technological advances and potential new applications.

SCHOOLS OFFERING BIO-ENGINEERING:

If we take a look at the top schools offering Biomedical engineering, we see the following:

  • MIT
  • Stanford
  • University of California-San Diego
  • Rice University
  • University of California-Berkley
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of Michigan—Ann Arbor
  • Georgia Tech
  • Johns Hopkins
  • Duke University

As you can see, these are among the most prestigious schools in the United States.  They have had established engineering programs for decades.  Bio-engineering does not represent a new discipline for them.  There are several others and I would definitely recommend you go online to take a look if you are interested in seeing a complete list of colleges and universities offering a four (4) or five (5) year degree.

SALARY LEVELS:

The median annual wage for biomedical engineers was $86,950 in May 2014. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest ten (10) percent earned less than $52,680, and the highest ten (10) percent earned more than $139,350.  As you might expect, salary levels vary depending upon several factors:

  • Years of experience
  • Location within the United States
  • Size of company
  • Research facility and corporate structure
  • Bonus or profit sharing arrangement of company

EXPECTATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT:

In their list of top jobs for 2015, CNNMoney classified Biomedical Engineering as the 37th best job in the US, and of the jobs in the top 37, Biomedical Engineering 10-year job growth was the third highest (27%) behind Information Assurance Analyst (37%) and Product Analyst (32%). CNN previously reported Biomedical Engineer as the top job in the US in 2012 with a predicted 10-year growth rate of nearly 62% ‘Biomedical Engineer’ was listed as a high-paying low-stress job according to Time magazine.  There is absolutely no doubt that medical technology will advance as time go on so biomedical engineers will continue to be in demand.

As always, I welcome your comments.

THE NEXT FIVE (5) YEARS

February 15, 2017


As you well know, there are many projections relative to economies, stock market, sports teams, entertainment, politics, technology, etc.   People the world over have given their projections for what might happen in 2017.  The world of computing technology is absolutely no different.  Certain information for this post is taken from the publication “COMPUTER.org/computer” web site.  These guys are pretty good at projections and have been correct multiple times over the past two decades.  They take their information from the IEEE.

The IEEE Computer Society is the world’s leading membership organization dedicated to computer science and technology. Serving more than 60,000 members, the IEEE Computer Society is the trusted information, networking, and career-development source for a global community of technology leaders that includes researchers, educators, software engineers, IT professionals, employers, and students.  In addition to conferences and publishing, the IEEE Computer Society is a leader in professional education and training, and has forged development and provider partnerships with major institutions and corporations internationally. These rich, self-selected, and self-paced programs help companies improve the quality of their technical staff and attract top talent while reducing costs.

With these credentials, you might expect them to be on the cutting edge of computer technology and development and be ahead of the curve as far as computer technology projections.  Let’s take a look.  Some of this absolutely blows me away.

human-brain-interface

This effort first started within the medical profession and is continuing as research progresses.  It’s taken time but after more than a decade of engineering work, researchers at Brown University and a Utah company, Blackrock Microsystems, have commercialized a wireless device that can be attached to a person’s skull and transmit via radio thought commands collected from a brain implant. Blackrock says it will seek clearance for the system from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, so that the mental remote control can be tested in volunteers, possibly as soon as this year.

The device was developed by a consortium, called BrainGate, which is based at Brown and was among the first to place implants in the brains of paralyzed people and show that electrical signals emitted by neurons inside the cortex could be recorded, then used to steer a wheelchair or direct a robotic arm (see “Implanting Hope”).

A major limit to these provocative experiments has been that patients can only use the prosthetic with the help of a crew of laboratory assistants. The brain signals are collected through a cable screwed into a port on their skull, then fed along wires to a bulky rack of signal processors. “Using this in the home setting is inconceivable or impractical when you are tethered to a bunch of electronics,” says Arto Nurmikko, the Brown professor of engineering who led the design and fabrication of the wireless system.

capabilities-hardware-projection

Unless you have been living in a tree house for the last twenty years you know digital security is a huge problem.  IT professionals and companies writing code will definitely continue working on how to make our digital world more secure.  That is a given.

exascale

We can forget Moor’s Law which refers to an observation made by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore in 1965. He noticed that the number of transistors per square inch on integrated circuits had doubled every year since their invention.  Moore’s law predicts that this trend will continue into the foreseeable future. Although the pace has slowed, the number of transistors per square inch has since doubled approximately every 18 months. This is used as the current definition of Moore’s law.  We are well beyond that with processing speed literally progressing at “warp six”.

non-volitile-memory

If you are an old guy like me, you can remember when computer memory costs an arm and a leg.  Take a look at the JPEG below and you get an idea as to how memory costs has decreased over the years.

hard-drive-cost-per-gbyte

As you can see, costs have dropped remarkably over the years.

photonics

texts-for-photonoics

power-conservative-multicores

text-for-power-conservative-multicores

CONCLUSION:

If you combine the above predictions with 1.) Big Data, 2.) Internet of Things (IoT), 3.) Wearable Technology, 4.) Manufacturing 4.0, 5.) Biometrics, and other fast-moving technologies you have a world in which “only the adventurous thrive”.  If you do not like change, I recommend you enroll in a monastery.  You will not survive gracefully without technology on the rampage. Just a thought.


One of the items on my bucket list has been to attend the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.  (I probably need to put a rush on this one because the clock is ticking.)  For 50 years, CES has been the launching pad for innovation and new technology.  Much of this technology has changed the world. Held in Las Vegas every year, it is the world’s gathering place for all who thrive on the business of consumer technologies and where next-generation innovations are introduced to the commercial marketplace.   The International Consumer Electronics Show (International CES) showcases more than 3,800 exhibiting companies, including manufacturers, developers and suppliers of consumer technology hardware, content, technology delivery systems and more; a conference program with more than three hundred (300) conference sessions and more than one-hundred and sixty-five thousand attendees from one hundred1 (50) countries.  Because it is owned and produced by the Consumer Technology Association (CTA)™ — formerly the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA)® — the technology trade association representing the $287 billion U.S. consumer technology industry, and it attracts the world’s business leaders and pioneering thinkers to a forum where the industry’s most relevant issues are addressed.  The range of products is immense as seen from the listing of product categories below.

PRODUCT CATEGORIES:

  • 3D Printing
  • Accessories
  • Augmented Reality
  • Audio
  • Communications Infrastructure
  • Computer Hardware/Software/Services
  • Content Creation & Distribution
  • Digital/Online Media
  • Digital Imaging/Photography
  • Drones
  • Electronic Gaming
  • Fitness and Sports
  • Health and Biotech
  • Internet Services
  • Personal Privacy & Cyber Security
  • Robotics
  • Sensors
  • Smart Home
  • Startups
  • Vehicle Technology
  • Video
  • Wearables
  • Wireless Devices & Services

If we look at world-changing revolution and evolution coming from CES over the years, we may see the following advances in technology, most of which now commercialized:

  • Videocassette Recorder (VCR), 1970
  • Laserdisc Player, 1974
  • Camcorder and Compact Disc Player, 1981
  • Digital Audio Technology, 1990
  • Compact Disc – Interactive, 1991
  • Digital Satellite System (DSS), 1994
  • Digital Versatile Disk (DVD), 1996
  • High Definition Television (HDTV), 1998
  • Hard-disc VCR (PVR), 1999
  • Satellite Radio, 2000
  • Microsoft Xbox and Plasma TV, 2001
  • Home Media Server, 2002
  • Blu-Ray DVD and HDTV PVR, 2003
  • HD Radio, 2004
  • IP TV, 2005
  • Convergence of content and technology, 2007
  • OLED TV, 2008
  • 3D HDTV, 2009
  • Tablets, Netbooks and Android Devices, 2010
  • Connected TV, Smart Appliances, Android Honeycomb, Ford’s Electric Focus, Motorola Atrix, Microsoft Avatar Kinect, 2011
  • Ultrabooks, 3D OLED, Android 4.0 Tablets, 2012
  • Ultra HDTV, Flexible OLED, Driverless Car Technology, 2013
  • 3D Printers, Sensor Technology, Curved UHD, Wearable Technologies, 2014
  • 4K UHD, Virtual Reality, Unmanned Systems, 2015

Why don’t we do this, let’s now take a very brief look at several exhibits to get a feel for the products.  Here we go.

Augmented Reality (AR):

Through specially designed hardware and software full of cameras, sensors, algorithms and more, your perception of reality can be instantly altered in context with your environment. Applications include sports scores showing on TV during a match, the path of trajectory overlaying an image, gaming, construction plans and more.  VR (virtual reality) equipment is becoming extremely popular, not only with consumers, but with the Department of Defense, Department of Motor Vehicles, and companies venturing out to technology for training purposes.

augmented-reality

Cyber Security:

The Cyber & Personal Security Marketplace will feature innovations ranging from smart wallets and safe payment apps to secure messaging and private Internet access.  If you have never been hacked, you are one in a million.  I really don’t think there are many people who have remained unaffected by digital fraud.  One entire section of the CES is devoted to cyber security.

cyber-security

E-Commerce:

Enterprise solutions are integral for business. From analytics, consulting, integration and cyber security to e-commerce and mobile payment, the options are ever-evolving.  As you well know, each year the number of online shoppers increases and will eventually outpace the number of shoppers visiting “brick-and-motor stores.  Some feel this may see the demise of shopping centers altogether.

e-commerce

Self-Driving Autonomous Automobiles:

Some say if you are five years old or under you may never need a driver’s license.  I personally think this is a little far-fetched but who knows.  Self-driving automobiles are featured prominently at the CES.

self-driving-automobiles

Virtual Reality (VR):

Whether it will be the launch of the next wave of immersive multimedia for virtual reality systems and environments or gaming hardware, software and accessories designed for mobile, PCs or consoles, these exhibitors are sure to energize, empower and excite at CES 2017.

vr

i-Products:

From electronic plug-ins to fashionable cases, speakers, headphones and exciting new games and applications, the product Marketplace will feature the latest third-party accessories and software for your Apple iPod®, iPhone® and iPad® devices.

i-products

3-D Printing:

Most 3D printers are used for building prototypes for the medical, aerospace, engineering and automotive industries. But with the advancement of the digital technology supporting it, these machines are moving toward more compact units with affordable price points for today’s consumer.

30-d-printing

Robotic Systems:

The Robotics Marketplace will showcase intelligent, autonomous machines that are changing the way we live at work, at school, at the doctor’s office and at home.

robotics

Healthcare and Wellness:

Digital health continues to grow at an astonishing pace, with innovative solutions for diagnosing, monitoring and treating illnesses, to advancements in health care delivery and smarter lifestyles.

health-and-wellness

Sports Technology:

In a world where an athlete’s success hinges on milliseconds or millimeters, high-performance improvement and feedback are critical.

sports-technology

CONCLUSIONS:

I think it’s amazing and to our credit as a country that CES exists and presents, on an annual basis, designs and visions from the best and brightest.  A great show-place for ideas the world over from established companies and companies who wish to make their mark on technology.  Can’t wait to go—maybe next year.  As always, I welcome your comments.

FASTER THAN A ’57 CHEVY

November 5, 2016


I grew up in the ’50s in post-world war two (WWII) decade.  It truly was a very simple time as compared to the chaotic, time-obsessed, “hair-on-fire”, get-it-done-at-any cost times we experience today.  One expression I remember very clearly was: “faster than a ’57 Chevy”.  Anything over walking speed was faster than a ’57 Chevy.  This, of course, was handed down from the older kids to guys my age.  The object of that expression may be seen below.

57-chevy

(I told you those were much more simple days.) If we only knew what was coming down the pike, we would have never never used that expression.  You know what is really faster than a ’57 Chevy?  Let’s take a look.

This month the Top 500 biannual ranking of the world’s fastest, publicly known supercomputers will be updated.  The list release will coincide with SC16, the International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis held in Salt Lake City from November 13 to November 18. The last Top 500 update in June revealed that China maintained its grip on the number one spot with the new and surprising Sunway TaihuLight device, which reached ninety-three (93) petaflops per second or ninety-three quadrillion calculations per second or “faster than a ’57 Chevy”.

Let’s refresh our memory.  A petaflop is a measure of a computer’s processing speed and can be expressed as:

  • A quadrillion (thousand trillion) floating point operations per second (FLOPS)
  • A thousand teraflops
  • 10 to the 15th power FLOPS
  • 2 to the 50th power FLOPS

THE LIST

NUMBER 1: National Supercomputing Center in Wuxi, China: Sunway TaihuLight with 10,649,600 cores running 15,371 Kw.  The Sunway is shown below:

sunway-taihulight

NUMBER 2:  National Super Computer Center in Guangzhou, China: Tianhe-2(MilkyWay-2) with 3,120,000 cores running 17,808 Kw.

tianhe-2

NUMBER 3:  DOE/SC/OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, UNITED STATES:  Titan-Cray XK7: 560,640 cores running 8,209 Kw.

titan-cray-xk7

NUMBER 4:  DOE/NNSA/LLNL, UNITED STATES:  Sequioa-BlueGene/Q:  1,572,864 cores running 7,890 Kw.

sequoia-blue-genie

NUMBER 5:  RIKEN ADVANCED INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE, JAPAN: K Computer SPARC64: 705,024 cores running 12,660 Kw.

k-computersparc64

Not only has China outdone itself in terms of the fastest supercomputer, it is now home to the largest number of supercomputers on the list.  One hundred sixty-seven (167) to be exact.  This doubles the number in the United States.  This year marks the first time since the Top 500 rankings began twenty-three (23) years ago, that the United States cannot lay claim to the most machines on the list. All is lost—well not quite.

In September, the DOE’s Exascale Computing Project or ECP, announced the first round of funding for advanced computers.  It awarded $39.8 million to fifteen (15) application development proposals for full funding and seven proposals for seed funding.  This is significant and will provide necessary financing to keep up and even surpass the Chinese.

HISTORY:

If we look at the history of computing power, we see the following:

history-of-computing-power-performance

Compare that with the cost of computing power:

evolution-of-computing-power-costs

CONCLUSIONS: 

As you can see, the advances in computing power are remarkable but at a significant cost.  Speed vs. cost.  This is one very expensive technology.  Fortunately, the computers we mortals use, do not require the speeds cutting-edge technology requires.  With that being the case, computing power on the domestic scale has decreased significantly over the years.


The following post is taken from information supplied by the publication “Machine Design”.  Each year Machine Design asks information from its readers’ questions relative to the engineering profession.  Given below are results from this survey.

PROFILE OF A TYPICAL ENGINEER

I really don’t think anyone is “typical”.  We each are unique individuals with a story to tell, but Machine Design uses this word to give us a snapshot of engineering as it exists today.

According to the Machine Design 2016 Survey, the majority of our readers are white males with seventy-four percent (74%) of our readers are age fifty (50) and older.  This to me is really troublesome because it indicates that seventy-four percent have approximately ten to twelve years before retirement.  Not much time to backfill with younger engineers.   A little more than half, fifty-eight percent (58%) work as design and development engineers.  This percentage is down from last year (61.7% in 2015). Engineering and operational management comprise 19.3% of current principal job functions. These engineers have the job title of chief, senior, executive, or lead engineer. At least fifty-five percent (55%) of our readers work forty (40) to fifty (50) hours a week.

THE FUTURE OF ENGINEERING

The future of engineering is still bright in the eyes of many current engineers. Over the last five years this view point has not changed and ninety-one percent (91%) would recommend engineering as a profession. When asked how they feel the engineering field is changing, one engineer spoke to our correspondent stating that the fields of engineering are merging. “The lines are currently blurring between mechanical and electrical engineer. Increasingly we are specifying electrical components required to accomplish motion. It is becoming important to have a basic understanding of the limitations of control systems and their impact on the mechanical systems being designed.”  The field of Mecatronics exemplifies this fact.   As the world of Internet of Things or IoT continues to expand, we will see more of how the engineering worlds combine.

Let us now take a quick look at where the engineering profession stands in general.  The graphics give a very interesting picture.

typical-engineer

I find it very interesting that seventy-seven percent (77%) have twenty plus yeas of experience with those over sixty years in age steadily increasing.  As metntioned earlier, time to begin replacing those considering retirement within the next ten to fifteen years with younger engineers.  Regardless of how bright the younger engineering community is, experience and training play a great role in success.  The “old guys” can aid these efforts in a great manner.

work-location

You see from the graphic above the larger percentages of engineering involvement across our country.  There is a predominance, ten percent (10%) involvement in California alone.  I suspect Silicone Valley contributes greatly to this larger enclave of engineering talent.

compensation

We are all interested in how we “stack up” relative to salary levels and bonuses levels.  The numbers above give a fairly good picture of averages across the profession.  I was very surprised to see over eleven percent (11%) increase in salary from 2014.  This, as mentioned, indicates the market is improving OR engineering talent is harder to come by.  Engineers can now pick and choose where they wish to spend time. $99,933 as an average salary is huge in my opinion but justified.

salary-by-experience

As you might expect, as you gain experience your salary level should and does increase.  Those with forty plus years’ experience can expect $100K plus in salary.

job-satisfaction

By and large, the engineering community is satisfied with their job with less than two percent (2%) being not satisfied at all.  I suspect this is company related and with opportunities available job changes are in order.

employment-outlook

I was looking for a job when I found this one.  Fifty-nine plus percent (55.9%) indicate they would be open to changing jobs is that opportunity became available.  In looking at results from the last two years, this is not out of line at all.  As with the last five years, challenges, research and benefits to society rank very highly as desirable features of any one given job.  Engineers have a higher calling than money itself.  That has always been apparent.

outsourcing1

In our lives today, the fear of engineering positions being outsourced is a very real concern.  Manufacturing jobs in particular seem to be targeted.  Some of this is definitely due to the onerous tax code our country is forcing manufacturers to live under.  Also, regulations remain a significant burden to manufacturers.

outsourcing2

concerns

The concerns within the engineering community are shared by other professions.  We are definitely not alone in that regard.  Time, people and money to accomplish any one given mission is uppermost in the minds of working engineers.  This is very much in line with the last five years of reporting.

education-and-training

This chart speaks for itself.  The oldest question in the world: “Which is more desirable in the engineering profession, “book learning” or practice?  ANSWER: There is nothing more practical that education.  You’ve heard this year after year.  Engineering education is changing though and for the better.  We are seeing more and more schools adopt a hands-on approach to engineering training.  This does not replace classroom work but does supplement the in-class experience.

whats-keeping-engineers-up-at-night

Trust me on this one, engineers are worriers.  That makes us no different than individuals in most professions.  The graphic above fully illustrates those areas of concern.

iot

IoT is looming. IoT will, if not already, become a huge factor for every design engineer.  I might add, IoT AND “big data” are infusing themselves into the daily lives of the engineering community.  It’s happening and engineers need to realize that reality.

changes

The chart above might be considered to be a continuation of concerns the engineering community has, particularly increasing regulation.

CONCLUSION:  I think this annual survey is extremely valuable and provides a gage for practicing engineers.  Comparisons are always interesting.

 

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