SCUTOIDS

July 31, 2018


Just who is considered the “father of geometry”?  Do you know the answer?  Euclid enters history as one of the greatest mathematicians in history and is often referred to as the father of geometry. The standard geometry most of us learned in school is called Euclidian Geometry.  My geometry teacher in high school was Mr. Willard Millsaps.  OK, you asked how I remember that teacher’s name—he was magic. I graduated in 1961 from Chattanooga Central High School so it is a minor miracle that I remember anything, but I do remember Mr. Millsaps.

Euclid gathered all the knowledge developed in Greek mathematics at that time and created his great work, a book called ‘The Elements’ (c300 BCE). This treatise is unequaled in the history of science and could safely lay claim to being the most influential non-religious book of all time.

Euclid probably attended Plato’s academy in Athens before moving to Alexandria, in Egypt. At this time, the city had a huge library and the ready availability of papyrus made it the center for books, the major reasons why great minds such as Heron of Alexandria and Euclid based themselves there.   With Caesar’s conquest of Alexandria in 48 BC the ancient accounts by Plutarch, Aulus Gellius, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Orosius were accidentally burned during or after the siege.  The library was arguably one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world, but details are a mixture of history and legend. Its main purpose was to show off the wealth of Egypt, with research as a lesser goal, but its contents were used to aid the ruler of Egypt. At any rate, its loss was significant.

You would certainly think that from 300 BCE to the present day just about every geometric figure under the sun would have been discovered but that just might not be the case.  Researchers from the University of Seville found a new configuration of shapes:  “twisted prisms”.  These prisms are found in nature, more specifically within the cells that make up skin and line many organs. Scutoids are the true shape of epithelial cells that protect organisms against infections and take in nutrients.

These “blocks” were previously represented as prism-shaped, but research published in the peer-reviewed journal Nature Communications suggests they have a specific curve and look unlike any other known shape. The researchers observed the structure in fruit-flies and zebrafish.

The scutoid is six-sided at the top, five-sided on the bottom with one triangular side. Why it has been so complex to define is because epithelial cells must move and join together to organize themselves “and give the organs their final shape,” University of Seville Biology faculty teacher Luisma Escudero said in a release.  A picture is truly worth a thousand words so given below is an artist’s rendition of a “twisted prism” or SCUTOID.

This shape — new to math, not to nature — is the form that a group of cells in the body takes in order to pack tightly and efficiently into the tricky curves of organs, scientists reported in a new paper, published July 27 in the journal Nature Communications. As mentioned earlier, the cells, called epithelial cells, line most surfaces in an animal’s body, including the skin, other organs and blood vessels. These cells are typically described in biology books as column-like or having some sort of prism shape — two parallel faces and a certain number of parallelogram sides. Sometimes, they can also be described as a bottle-like form of a prism called a “frustum.

But by using computational modeling, the group of scientists found that epithelial cells can take a new shape, previously unrecognized by mathematics, when they have to pack together tightly to form the bending parts of organs. The scientists named the shape “scutoid” after a triangle-shaped part of a beetle’s thorax called the scutellum. The researchers later confirmed the presence of the new shape in the epithelial cells of fruit-fly salivary glands and embryos.

By packing into scutoids, the cells minimize their energy use and maximize how stable they are when they pack, the researchers said in a statement. And uncovering such elegant mathematics of nature can provide engineers with new models to inspire delicate human-made tissues.

“If you are looking to grow artificial organs, this discovery could help you build a scaffold to encourage this kind of cell packing, accurately mimicking nature’s way to efficiently develop tissues,” study co-senior author Javier Buceta, an associate professor in the Department of Bioengineering at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania, said in the statement.

The results of the study surprised the researchers. “One does not normally have the opportunity to discover much name a new shape,” Buceta said in the statement.

CONCLUSIONS:

I just wonder how many more things do we not know about our universe and the planet we inhabit. I think as technology advances and we become more adept at investigating, we will discover an encyclopedia full of “unknowns”.

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DOMESTIC TRANQUILITY

April 28, 2018


I am gong to deviate from my usual STEM post and do a little politics, the subject being “Domestic Tranquility”.  The need to achieve domestic tranquility goes back a long time.  Remember this?

“We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of the Unites States of America.”

These words are the preamble to our Constitution.  Basically, if I read this correctly, a more perfect union just might depend upon justice, insuring domestic tranquility, providing for the common defense and promoting the general welfare.   Most people will agree, we really are not there with no real signs of getting there too quickly relative to tranquility, domestic or otherwise.   Domestic tranquility generally means peace at home. It is meant with reference to family as well as states. Domestic Tranquility with regard to constitution is referred to peace among the states. Constitution gives power to federal government squash rebellion and to smooth tensions between states

Recent polls have confirmed that Americans are feeling bitterly split. A Gallup poll conducted just after the 2016 presidential election found seventy-seven (77) percent of Americans see the country as “greatly divided when it comes to the most important values,” up from sixty-six (66) percent in 2012. A Washington Post-University of Maryland poll, conducted nine months into Trump’s presidency, found that seven in ten (10) Americans think the nation’s political divisions are as bad as during the Vietnam War.  Kwame Anthony Appiah, a professor of philosophy at Princeton University, said this kind of division has been rare in the U.S. While the country has faced many periods of intense disagreement and strife, he said, what’s unusual is the current tendency of some Americans to argue that others don’t belong in the country at all. This approach to politics has appeared only occasionally in U.S. history. For example, in the Jacksonian period, Andrew Jackson’s supporters sharply defined Americans as English-speaking Christians of European origin, while in the McCarthy years, people with particular political views or lifestyles could be declared un-American and denied basic constitutional protections.

One element in today’s world that divides us even more is social media.

SOCIAL MEDIA:

Social media may be society’s gateway to a global connection that we have never seen before, but if we look closely, social media has played a significant role in dividing us more than it connects us.  Take any issue or topic developing domestically or internationally. Whatever this issue is, social media platforms, such as Facebook Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter, etc. play a prominent role in adding fuel to the fire. With the ability to express ourselves without face to face interaction, this opens the door for a much different form of debating. We are all a part of the term “keyboard warrior.” At one point, we have all fallen into this category. It feels as if this is the direction our country is moving in. Nothing is being resolved because we don’t look for resolutions anymore. We just look for the next opportunity to slander the opposite belief. I feel as if this won’t change but it will just get more and more relevant as we extend further and further into our newly found self-extension that has become our social media profiles.  This is demonstrated each night with late-night comics working towards greater ratings.  They use as their platform the political issues of the day.

Our social skills are falling while our social media skills are rising. This idea that our Facebook rants will change the world is far from true. The truth is if you want change, get off your high horse and go out and do something about it. Your Facebook essay on why something is wrong isn’t going to do anything but make you look like a fool. Stop sitting around and waiting for the change you seek and go out and become the change you so desperately want to see invoked in our world. We must take a hold of this issue before it consumes our youngest generation. These kids will one day be our executives. If they grow up in a solely social media-dominated world, it will have devastating effects on generations to come.

Let’s take a look at what course of action might help achieve domestic tranquility.

  • ELIMINATE POLITICAL PARTIES: When George Washington became President of the United States in 1789, there were no political parties. Political parties first emerged during Washington’s first term in office with the Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist Party in 1791 and in the following year, the formation of the Anti-Federalist Party or Democratic-Republicans under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson. The two political parties formulated their views of how government ought to operate in the new republic. At the end of Washington’s first term, as he was preparing to retire and go back to Mt. Vernon to just be a farmer again, the leaders of the opposing parties both wanted him to reconsider with Hamilton and Jefferson pleading with Washington to stay on for a second term. Washington was against political parties and felt they would detract from governing.
  • EXTEND THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES TERM TO FOUR (4) YEARS. John Larson (D-Conn.) is pushing to extend the terms of House members to four years to free them from the pressures of constant fundraising. In an interview with The Hill, Larson said extending the terms and staggering them so that half of the House is up for reelection every two years would let members prioritize learning the ropes in Congress over campaign cash. “I think the two-year cycle and all the demands that places on individuals tends to lend itself to one chasing their tail in terms of raising the money required to get reelected,” Larson said. Larson said new members arrive in Washington for freshman orientation only to be told to start dialing for dollars again.
    “The first orders that the Republican Conference and Democratic Caucus give is, ‘Get on the phone and start raising money again. You’ve got an election coming up.’ And I think that we ought to reverse that priority,” Larson said.
  • MAKE THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH OF OUR GOVERNMENT ABIDE BY THE RULES THEY PASS: Republican Senator from Kentucky, Rand Paul, introduced a Constitutional Amendment in the recent past that would prohibit members of Congress from passing laws “applicable to a citizen of the United States that is not equally applicable to Congress.”

Section 1. Congress shall make no law applicable to a citizen of the United States that is not equally applicable to Congress.

Section 2. Congress shall make no law applicable to a citizen of the United States that is not equally applicable to the executive branch of Government, including the President, Vice President, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and all other officers of the United States, including those provided for under this Constitution and by law, and inferior officers to the President established by law.

Section 3. Congress shall make no law applicable to a citizen of the United States that is not equally applicable to judges of the Supreme Court of the United States, including the Chief Justice, and judges of such inferior courts as Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.

Section 4. Nothing in this article shall preempt any specific provision of this Constitution.’

I hate to say it, but the law doesn’t have a chance at passing. If it did, Congress would understand the destress many Americans feel toward laws that restrict activity and commerce.

  • REGULATE SOCIAL MEDIA: Basically, no hate speech.  (This would never pass due to too much backlash from the “talking heads” on television and the politicians themselves.)

I certainly welcome your comments and I’m sure there are many many more action items that could contribute to tranquility.

Astrolabe

October 25, 2017


Information for the following post was taken from an article entitled “It’s Official: Earliest Known Marine Astrolabe Found in Shipwreck” by Laura Geggel, senior writer for LiveScience, 25 October 2017.

It’s amazing to me how much history is yet to be discovered, understood and transmitted to readers such as you and me.   I read a fascinating article some months ago indicating the history we do NOT know far exceeds the history we DO know.  Of course, the “winners” get to write their version of what happened.  This is as it has always been. In the great and grand scheme of things, we have artifacts and mentifacts.

ARTIFACT:

“Any object made by human beings, especially with a view to subsequent use.  A handmade object, as a tool, or the remains of one, as shard of pottery, characteristic of an earlier time or cultural stage, especially such an object found at an archaeological excavation.”

MENTIFACT:

“Mentifact (sometimes called a “psychofact”) is a term coined by Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, used together with the related terms “sociofact” and “artifact” to describe how cultural traits, such as “beliefs, values, ideas,” take on a life of their own spanning over generations, and are conceivable as objects in themselves.”

The word astrolabe is defined as follows:

The astrolabe is a very ancient astronomical computer for solving problem relating to time and position of the Sun and stars.  Several types of astrolabes have been made.  By far, the most popular type is the planispheric astrolabe, on which the celestial sphere is projected onto the plane of the equator.  A typical old astrolabe was made of brass and was approximately six (6) inches in diameter, although much larger and smaller astrolabes were also fabricated.

The subject for this post is the device shown as follows:

FIND:

More than 500 years ago, a fierce storm sank a ship carrying the earliest known marine astrolabe — a device that helped sailors navigate at sea, new research finds. Divers found the artifact in 2014, but were unsure exactly what it was at the time. Now, thanks to a 3D-imaging scanner, scientists were able to find etchings on the bronze disc that confirmed it was an astrolabe.

“It was fantastic to apply our 3D scanning technology to such an exciting project and help with the identification of such a rare and fascinating item,” Mark Williams, a professorial fellow at the Warwick Manufacturing Group at the University of Warwick, in the United Kingdom, said in a statement. Williams and his team did the scan.

 

The marine astrolabe likely dates to between 1495 and 1500, and was aboard a ship known as the Esmeralda, which sank in 1503. The Esmeralda was part of a fleet led by Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, the first known person to sail directly from Europe to India.

In 2014, an expedition led by Blue Water Recoveries excavated the Esmeralda shipwreck and recovered the astrolabe. But because researchers couldn’t discern any navigational markings on the almost seven (7) inch-diameter (17.5 centimeters) disc, they were cautious about labeling it without further evidence.

Now, the new scan reveals etchings around the edge of the disc, each separated by five degrees, Williams found. This detail proves it’s an astrolabe, as these markings would have helped mariners measure the height of the sun above the horizon at noon — a strategy that helped them figure out their location while at sea, Williams said.  The disc is also engraved with the Portuguese coat of arms and the personal emblem of Dom Manuel I, Portugal’s king from 1495 to1521.  “Usually we are working on engineering-related challenges, so to be able to take our expertise and transfer that to something totally different and so historically significant was a really interesting opportunity,” Williams said.

CONCLUSIONS:

The only manner in which the use of this device could be known is by three-dimensional scanning techniques.  Once again, modern technology allows for the unveiling of the truth.  The engravings indicating Portugal’s king nailed the time period.  This is a significant find and confirms early voyages throughout history.


This past week my wife and I traveled to Dallas to visit our youngest son, Ben.    He is a programmer, among other things, for AT&T.    Ben is a perfect host and purchased tickets for a mid-morning visit to the Museum of National History and Science, or the Perot Museum.    The museum opened its doors on December 1, 2012 and has enjoyed a tremendous number of visitors since that time.   Let’s take a look at several “bullets” and discover the general layout of the museum, then we will look at JPEGS showing several of the exhibits presented.

  • There are five (5) levels or floors, so bring your walking shoes.
    • Lower Level—Sports Hall, Auditorium, Moody Family Children’s museum, Jan and Trevor Rees-Jones Exhibition Hall.
    • Level  1–  Hoagland Foundation Theater.
    •  Level  2—Being Human Hall, Texas Instruments Engineering and Innovation Hall,
    • Discovering Life Hall
    • Level 3—Tom Hunt Energy Hall, Lyda Hill Gems and Minerals Hall, The Rees-Jones Foundation Dynamic Earth Hall.
    • Level 4—T.Boon Pickens, Life Then and Now Hall, Expanding Universe Hall.
    • Level  4M—Rose Hall of Birds
  • 180,000 square feet of floor space.
  •  170 feet tall, environmentally- friendly building that is itself an exhibit.
  • Eleven (11) permanent exhibit halls.
  • Children’s museum, including outdoor play space designed especially for children five years and younger.
  • Education wing with six learning labs.
  •  Green features, including a rainwater collection system, LED lighting and solar-powered water heating.

Now for the digital photographs:

Museum Building

 

The architecture is dramatic and I’m told the people of Dallas either love it or hate it—there is apparently no real in-between.  Personally, I think it’s striking and very much in-line with the architecture of other high-rise buildings in the general area.  The interior is spacious with space to house the most elaborate exhibit.

Space(2)

 

The exhibits are fashioned in a dramatic and lucid manner with stunning graphics.  I personally loved the presentations and it is very apparent much thought was given to layout and placement of each pictorial.  The one above is taken from the “Journey Through the Solar System” presentation located on Level 4.

The Final Fronter

 

The photo above shows additional “walls” of information describing our own planet and specifics involving rotation of the earth around the sun, the “neighbors” in our solar system, etc.  One of the most fascinating exhibits was describing the difference between mass and weight of an object.  Bowling balls were used to demonstrate the pull of gravity on Earth, our Moon, Saturn, Mars, Jupiter, etc.  Very effectively done and one of the best examples of resourcefulness relative to presentations.  I wish I had these guys with me during my university days.

The fossil collection came from actual “digs” occurring in Texas.   The results are very informative.

Backbone

 

One of the only, if not the only, complete backbone ever discovered is given above.  Texas is very proud of this one.

Fosslis

 

Fosslil

 

Pre-historic Hall

 

Shown above is the main exhibit hall.  Most of the “big stuff” was positioned in this hall.

Shown below is one of my favorite.

Wooley Mamoth

 

An equally fascinating demonstration was the world population clock.  A little frightening to say the least.   The clock gave dire indications as to what energy would be needed as our world population increased above seven billion people.   Somewhat difficult to read from this JPEG but very dramatic in showing generation capacities needed to “fuel” a planet in ten, fifteen, twenty years.

 

 

World Population

 

A very “hands-on” exhibit was “Reading the Rocks”.

Reading the Rocks

 

At one time, the entire desert southwest was under water.   This resulted in a great variety of plant and animal life that eventually resulted in fossil deposits.

 

 

Fossil

 

Fossil

 

 Fossil

 

One of the very best things about the museum is the inter-action possible and the “hands-on” exhibits.  The Hall of Engineering is absolutely marvelous and instructional for the participants.  There were over one hundred school-age children working with robotic systems, earthquake simulation, magnetism, structural engineering modules, communication devices, and many other demonstrations.  This exhibit actually demonstrated what engineers do on a daily basis.

I can definitely recommend to you this museum but be aware of the fact that four to five hours will be needed to see all five floors of the museum, but you certainly will be much more informed for doing so. A good day at the very least.

Please feel free to comment.  Many thanks.


The resource and idea for this posting came from an article written by Robert Johnson and Gus Lubin, published in The Business Insider, January 20, 2013.  Some of the text is copied from their fine article. All of the pictures come from other sources.

It’s absolutely amazing how cities seem to grow over the years, decades and centuries.   What attracts individuals to these metropolitan areas?      Jobs, commercial opportunities, medical facilities, cultural centers, military service.   Probably all of these reasons and many, many more.   The greatest and largest cities in the world were arguably epicenters of human civilization.  The cities we will discuss led mankind to new heights of culture and commerce—though in the end each of them was surpassed and some were destroyed.     Have you ever thought about the great cities that existed over the centuries?    Where were they and what do historians feel were their drawing powers?   Recently a two-man team put together their candidates for the greatest cities of their time.  Let’s take a look.

Jericho—   Jericho may be the oldest continually occupied city in the world, with evidence of settlement dating back to 9000 BCE.  The population was thought to be around 2,000 people, which was considered to be a huge metropolitan area for the time.     During the Younger Dryas period of cold and drought, permanent habitation of any one location was not possible. However, the spring at what would become Jericho was a popular camping ground for Natufian hunter-gatherer groups, who left a scattering of crescent microlith tools behind.  Around 9600 BCE the droughts and cold of the Younger Dryas Stadial had come to an end, making it possible for Natufian groups to extend the duration of their stay, eventually leading to year round habitation and permanent settlement.   An artist’s rendering of the city may be seen as follows:

GodfreyJericho

Uruk— Uruk is famous as the capital city in the epic of Gilgamesh; also thought to be the Biblical city of Erech, built by King Nimrod.  The domestication of grain and its close proximity to the Euphrates River allowed Uruk’s harvest to swell, leading to trade, advancements in writing, and specialized crafts.   The city, with a population of 4,000, declined around 2000 BC due to regional struggles and was finally abandoned around the time of the Islamic conquest.

Uruk-1

Mari—Mari, a city of 50,000  was the robust trade capital of Mesopotamia, central in moving stone, timber, agricultural goods and pottery throughout the region.   The city was home first to the Sumerite kings, then the Amorite kings, one of which built a massive 300-room palace.  Mari was destroyed in 1759 BC by Hammurabi of Babylon and then abandoned.  In the 1930s a French archaeologist discovered 25,000 tablets written in an extinct language called Akkadian. Most were municipal documents, economic reports and census rolls—a third were personal letters. The find changed our understanding of the ancient Near East.

The_ancient_city_of_Mari

 

Ur–Ur was the most important port on the Persian Gulf. It was also a rich city, which held huge amounts of luxury items crafted from precious metals and semi-precious stones imported from throughout the known world.  Because of possible drought, or changing river patterns, Ur was no longer inhabited after 500 BC.   It remained a holy site, however, and a burial site for people around the region. When archaeologists began sincere excavations in the mid 1850s, they discovered an immense necropolis, or city of the dead.   100,000 citizens occupied Ur at its height.

ur

Yinxu  An old village of 120,000 on the Huan River, Yinxu was reborn as the capital of the Shang Dynasty.  It would be abandoned with the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty.   The city is a major archaeological site for its immense deposits of Oracle Bones, which contain the earliest form of Chinese writing. Pieces of ox bone and tortoise shell were inscribed using a bronze pin, heated until the bone cracked and then presented for divination. Later when the tradition changed to ink and brush, entire genealogies and city histories were written on the fragments and deposited in central pits.

Yinxu

Babylon– Just the word Babylon today conjures up images of decadence and hubris. It was here the Bible says residents believed so fully in themselves that they tried to build a structure into the heavens.     God was not impressed with the Tower of Babel, and the narrative holds that He assigned every resident a different language to confound any future teamwork.   Regardless of belief, Babylon was an epicenter of wealth, power and prestige from 2000 to about 538 BC.  That year Cyrus of Persia is said to have re-routed the Euphrates and sent his army into the city on the bare riverbed and routed the Babylonian forces.  As with Yinxu, the population was thought to be around 120,000 individuals.

BABYLONA

Carthage– Carthage is said to have been the greatest city in the world for a short time span before getting reduced to ash by the Romans in 146 BC.   Because all records of Carthaginian life were destroyed by the Romans in such a swift and thorough rage, little is known of the city through its former residents.   It wasn’t even until 1985 that a formal peace treaty between Rome and Carthage was signed, finally ending the 2,100-year period of conflict.  100,000 individuals lived in Carthage.

reconstruction_of_Carthage_1

Rome–   From its humble roots as a small Italian village 1,100 years earlier, Rome in the second century AD was enjoying the pinnacle of its influence and achievement.  A city of 1,200,000 people. At this time, the city was a military dictatorship under Septimius Severus; a move the people welcomed to correct the corruption instilled by Emperor Commodus.   Do you recall Joaquin Phoenix in “Gladiator“?   He portrayed Commodus in that movie.   Rome reached this size because it could draw food and taxes from most of Europe and the Mediterranean, but it proved an untenable position. By 273 AD, Rome had fewer than 500,000 inhabitants and the Dark Ages were looming on the horizon.

Rome

 

Constantinople–   Constantinople, population 600,000, was in a fight for its survival in the year 600.    The nomadic Avars and the Eastern European Bulgarians were crushing the city from the west, and the Persians had completely overwhelmed the city’s defenses in the east.   The metropolis was spared through a combination of impenetrable walls, its navy, and the arrival of soon-to-be emperor Flavius Heraclius Augustus, who eventually routed the Persians from Asia Minor.   The city is now known as Istanbul.   By 618, however, as the Persian Wars dragged on and decimated the city’s supply of grain from Egypt, Constantinople’s population dwindled to one tenth what it was 18 years before.

Constantinople

Bagdad– In the year 900, Baghdad was the center of the Golden Age of Islam—A 500-year Mid-East renaissance that began with the founding of the city and ended in 1250 AD with the Mongol invasion.     Home to the House of Wisdom, where the entire world’s knowledge was laboriously transcribed into Arabic, Baghdad’s enlightenment saved innumerable ancient texts from the western world.      This free exchange of ideas is probably what led to the population explosion, as traders from around the known world came to the city and exchanged farming techniques.   The result was the Arab Agricultural Revolution and a scientific approach to agriculture still used today. In the year 900, the population of Baghdad was thought to be around 900,000 people.

Baghdad

Kaifeng–For centuries, because of its central location on four major canals, Kaifeng was the capital city for a huge swath of China.  By 1200, the city was surrounded by three rings of walls to offset the vulnerability.  Despite the fortifications, Kaifeng was an early casualty in what would become a forty-year war with the Mongols — it was sacked and its residents numbering 1,000,000 fled in 1234.   Kaifeng is also home to the Kaifeng Jews, the most ancient Jewish population in China.

Kaifeng

Beijing–To feed its growing population and vast number of troops in 1400 AD, Beijing officials constructed the Jingtong storehouses to house grain it received as tax from the region.  The practice helped control prices and prevent inflation until the city grew to the largest in the world and the demand outgrew supply.  The population of 1,000,000 was then forced to consume the regional forests for housing and firewood leaving only coal, mined from the Western Hills, for heat and fuel. The resulting pollution changed the ecological makeup of the entire region.

Ayutthaya–The island Ayutthaya, the capital of Thailand for over 400 years, was often referred to as the most beautiful city in the world by the diplomats who traveled there.    It was so appealing, in fact, that in 1767 it was sacked by the Burmese, and the capital was moved to its current location in Bangkok.  At its height, 1,000,000 people lived in Ayutthaya.

Ayutthaya

London–  While the British Empire was flung around the globe bringing in immense wealth for a small portion of England; London was largely a slum in 1825.  And crime was rampant. Not until 1829 did government activate a full-time police force. Named after the Prime Minister at the time, Robert Peel, they’re called “bobbies” to this day.  In 1829, 1,335,000 people lived in London proper.

London

New York—    New York City took on its modern shape in 1914, when the Bronx was added as the fifth borough.  It was a city that looked to the future as it built skyscrapers and laid plans to build them even larger.   Despite the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, New York went ahead and built the Chrysler Building, the Empire State Building, the Lincoln Building and One Wall Street by 1931, just to name a few.  A whopping 7,774,000 liven in NYC in 1929.

Tokyo–  The economic toll of World War II continued to threaten Japan’s economic future into the 1950s.   But by 1968, Japan had reached an economic and population growth curve that has carried it into the 21st century.  The years from 1950 through 1990 in Japan are referred to as the post-war economic miracle, the most prosperous time ever in Japan’s history.  20, 500,000 live in Tokyo.

T

If we flash forward 100 years we may find cities such as Chicago, Sao Paulo, Los Angeles will have gone the way of several ancient cities we have taken a look at.  Only time will tell.

 

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