November 30, 2013

I wrote the following document for some months ago to demonstrate the possible uses of light cure adhesives.  This is a fascinating technology and one gaining importance as differing materials become commercialized.  Hope you enjoy it and please send me your comments as you see fit. 

At the present time, adhesive manufacturers offer products classified as Cyanoacrylates, Epoxies, Hot Melts, Silicones, Urethanes, Acrylics (one-part and two-part) and Light-cures.  These classifications provide products from manufacturers with specific characteristics that allow for bonding, gasketing, potting and encapsulating, retaining, thread-locking and thread-sealing.

Light-cure adhesive technology offers a new approach to bonding similar or dissimilar substrates by using either ultraviolet light (UV) or light within the visible spectrum.  Extremely rapid cure times, superior depth of cure, (up to four inches) and easy dispensability are only three of the benefits when using these adhesives combined with the appropriate processes.   The newer visible light-cure materials can offer adhesion comparable to most commercially available UV adhesives, with particularly high adhesion on polycarbonate and polyvinylchloride (PVC) materials.  All equate to lower cost of assembly, more freedom when designing components and products and the saving of valuable production time.  This method of adhesion is extremely valuable when bonding thin films, needing heightened safety relative to skin and eyes and when bonding heat sensitive materials.  This process can lessen, or eliminate, the need for costly and harmful chemicals from the workplace and can be solvent-free and non-hazardous.  The use of light-cure adhesives will result in a very clean and “friendly” worker environment with no significant material disposal costs.  There is no need to mix, prime or rush to apply the adhesive due to minimal time to dispense.  We will discuss other benefits and some disadvantages later on in our course.


Let us list now the relative advantages and disadvantages of using UV and V light-curing adhesives.


1.)     Reduced labor costs

2.)    Simplified automation when automation is used

3.)    Easier alignment of parts before cure

4.)    Improved in-line inspection

5.)    Reduced work in-process

6.)    Shorter cycle times due to rapid curing of components

7.)    Shorter lead times to customer possibly leading to reduced inventories

8.)    Fewer assembly stations required due to rapid cure times

9.)    No racking during cure

10.) No mixing generally required

11.) No pot life issues meaning generally much less waste of materials

12.) Reduced dispensing costs

13.) No hazardous waste due to purging or poor mixing

14.) No static mixers

15.) Easier to operate and maintain dispensing systems

16.) Better work acceptance

17.) No explosion proof equipment required

18.) Reduced health issues

19.) Reduced regulatory costs; i.e. reduced restrictions on volatile organic compounds

20.) Reduced disposal costs

21.)  Very fast cure times

22.)  Ideal for heat sensitive films and thin components

23.) Lower energy consumption required during processing of adhesive systems

24.) Visible light-cure adhesives cure through colored or tinted substrates

25.) Allows for miniaturization of component parts needing bonding or potting

26.) Improved manufacturing yield, quality and reliability

27.) Low odor

28.) RoHS compliant

29.) UL recognized materials available

30.) Low entrainment of moisture due to rapid cure times

31.) Solvent free

32.) Reduced material and process costs


As with any process or adhesive material, there are several disadvantages. These are as follows:

1.)    Expenditure for curing equipment is necessary

2.)    Shielding when UV light is used may be necessary

3.)    UV blocking eye protection may be necessary depending upon the processing equipment

4.)    A radiometer may be necessary to measure the intensity of the UV light

5.)    When using UV light, the light source MUST reach the bond line if complete cure is to be had.  This means that transmission of light through at least one substrate is crucial.  Some substrates have UV inhibitors to lessen or eliminate degradation of the component.  These inhibitors will inhibit the penetration and lessen adhesion necessitating another method of bonding.  (This is by far the biggest disadvantage for UV curing.)  A graphic depiction is given below that illustrates the principal.

6.)    The mechanical properties may not meet specified requirements for tensile strength, shear strength, peel strength, etc.

7.)    In some cases when potting depth is a factor, materials may not cure through.

8.)    Rapid cure may be too fast allowing no repositioning of mating components

9.)    Engineering specifications must be exact and specific denoting brand, part number and method of application relative to adhesive.

10.) Educating workers applying light-cure adhesives is a MUST.


When we discuss applications, we find they generally fall into one of several basic categories; i.e. 1.) Bonding, 2.) Sealing, 3.) Cured-In-Place Gaskets, 4.) Potting and 5.) Coating.  With this in mind, we can see the following product applications now using the light-cure technology:

1.)    Musical instruments

2.) Toys

3.) Sporting equipment

4.) Jewelry

5.) Optics (eye glasses)

6.) Needles

7.) Syringes

8.) Lighting

9.) Electronic Asms.

10.) Appliance assembly (refrigeration, laundry, etc.)

11.) Strain relief for wires and cord sets

12.) Conformal coating for PC boards

13.) Parts tacking

14.) Coil terminating

15.) Tamper-proofing

The development of light-curing adhesives has been enhanced by the latest generation of curing equipment.  This equipment includes both flood and point source configurations using bulb or lamp based systems.  In addition, equipment utilizing LED technology is now available for use with these adhesives.  The benefit here is that LEDs generate focused wavelengths that create appreciably tighter output range relative to regular visible lamp technologies.   Furthermore, because superfluous light and heat are not emitted, LED technology has proven to be both highly efficient and highly cost effective.  As might be expected, as a result of their small size, LED curing systems provide an LED light source that is perfect for curing tiny component parts.

As you can see, many industries use this technology and as materials improve, more and more will continue to do so.  FASCINATING TECHNOLOGY.


November 30, 2013

I am reprinting an article written by Rob Spiegel, Senior Editor, Automation & Control – Design News Daily.  The article points out what is and will be significant issues with online work and work accomplished in this “digital age”.  This is a huge problem; growing on a yearly basis.  The technology to avoid hackers and digital intrusion is far behind efforts to access data bases using digital means.  It must be apparent that intellectual property as well as national security is at stake.   Please take a look and comment as you see fit.

Hackers are trying to get into your plant data and your intellectual property. Think you’re safe? Hackers may have already attacked your data. The average length of time from a cyber-attack to the moment that attack is detected is a whopping 416 days, according to the National Board of Information Security Examiners (NBISE).

Michael Assante, director of NBISE painted a dire picture of the growing threat of cyber-security at the Rockwell Automation Fair in Houston Tuesday. In a panel discussion on the connected enterprise and industrial control system security, Assante noted that “94 percent of organizations that were victims of cyber-attacks were not able to detect the attack.” He also pointed out that 100 percent of the organizations that were attacked had security. “Conventional security is simply not keeping up,” he said.

Assante classified cyber-attacks into three categories:

  • General cyber-attacks are less structured. The hackers are out for notoriety and fame. They’re part of the hacker community.
  • Targeted cyber-attacks are directed to specific goals. The attacks could be for monetary gain or to steal intellectual property.
  • The third category is the most dangerous, strategic cyber-attacks. These are highly structured attacks with intent to commit major economic disruption or cyber-terrorism. Assante noted that strategic cyber-attacks are growing. “We have passed the inflection point,” he said.

As for warding off attacks, Assante believes the answer is an educated staff and networks that require authentication. “People pave the way to cyber-security,” he said. “We have to secure people, and we have to make people cyber-aware.”

Joining Assante on the panel was Frank Kulaszewicz, senior vice president of architecture and software at Rockwell Automation. Kulaszewicz acknowledged that security is a growing problem. “Major security events are increasing,” he said. “Security is one of the fastest changing landscapes in technology.” He explained that cyber-threats are growing partly because of the expanding connectivity in automation. “Whenever you add devices, you create more access points.”

Working on a solution
Kulaszewicz noted that Rockwell and Cisco Systems have developed a strategic relationship to increase connectivity and productivity, but also to work on security. “We’re using role-based security. We design for security and audit to identify gaps,” he said.

Assante sees a path to security in knowledge and skills, both to identify vulnerabilities and also to detect breaches. “The biggest challenge to security is skills,” Assante told Design News. “The answer is education, the right set of knowledge. We leverage that knowledge to improve security.” He noted that security comes in two forms, the ability to ward off attacks, and the ability to determine if an attack has been launched. “Not only must the connected device be secure, but the network must be able to detect if the device has been compromised,” he told us.

Who are the bad guys?
Attacks can come from anywhere in the world. (At a hackers conference you can buy a Russian toolkit to crack plant systems for $2,500.) However, the biggest threat may be plant employees. “It can be malicious insiders,” Kulaszewicz told us. “They do it for spite, or to get intellectual property before they leave.” He also noted that breaches can happen by mistake. “It can be an accident, say a maintenance guy tweaks a variable that opens up a network.”

Rockwell identified Cisco as the right partner to create viable cyber-security. “We developed a relationship with Cisco to improve security,” said Kulaszewicz. “Cisco has been successful in security with other verticals such as the financial industry. They have domain expertise. Their technology is great, so why should we develop our own?”


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